The Origin of the Prince of Wales: During the Reign of Edward I he conquered the Welsh people. They knew they were a conquered people, no one could defeat the mighty army of the King of England. Edward was so taken with his new country that he renovated Caernarfon Castle in north Wales. There his 11th child Edward was born on February 1, 1284. He was the 2nd living son and would become the heir to the throne. Alfonso, Edward's 1st son would die within a few weeks.
Edward II the 1st Prince of Wales
The Welsh people wanted to have Prince of their own, one that was born in Wales and could speak neither English or French. He must speak Welsh. The Barons went to the King with their request. He thought it was a good idea. He wined them and dined them, and then brought out his infant son Edward, declaring him their Prince of Wales. He was born in Wales and he could speak neither English or French. He promised them that he would make sure that the first language the Prince would learn to speak would be Welsh. He asked the Barons if they would be willing to serve his son as the Prince of Wales. What could they say? They agreed and on 10 May 1301 when Edward was 16 years he was formally invested as the Prince of Wales in Lincoln.
From this time forward the heir to the Crown of England has been formally invested as the Princes(ses) of Wales. It is not a hereditary title or conferred at birth, it must be conferred in an official ceremony. The jewels that the Princes have received over the centuries as gifts now make up the official Crown of Wales.